Non-penetrating projectiles for public order

New article: Otto M J Adang, Bas Mali, Kim Vermeulen, A prospective Police Technology Assessment of the use of non-penetrating projectiles for public order maintenance and riot control, Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, Volume 17, 2023, paad076,

The paper introduces Police Technology Assessment (PTA) to assess the feasibility of a new technology, in this case non-penetrating projectiles (NPPs) (both single- and multi-pellet) for public order maintenance. A PTA allows for a more complete and realistic assessment of the effects of less-lethal weapons than the medical and technical assessments that are usually applied. It assesses the socio-technical framework in which the weapons are to be positioned, including training, guidelines, and behaviour as well as individual and societal perceptions of the weapon within the complex interactions existing between these factors. The conclusion of the assessment is that implementation of NPPs for public order maintenance or riot control does not provide a realistic or effective potential use in line with the public order management concept in use in the Netherlands, whereas use of such projectiles would carry great risks, which include risks to the societal support for the way the police maintains public order.